Charles Darwin

by Terence Rice ~ April 23rd, 2010. Filed under: Chapter 21: Global Empire and European Culture.

Charles Robert Darwin was one of the greatest English naturalist of all. His greatest contributes are his idea of Scientific theory and Natural selection. Everything started for Darwin after his publication of hid book On The Origin of Species. This book was a very convincing for the scientific community to accept the idea of evolution as a fact. The book also had Controversy with the church. Which later the pope had his book banned form the church.

Although now Darwin is thought to be a more excepted but still controversial topic. As shown above in the image people of the time thought (some people still do) that the idea was a matter to joke at. The picture depicting Darwin half ape is also simulating the hard time for some of the people to grasp the nature of Darwin’s thought.

Another huge topic of Charles Darwin was his concept of Survival of the fittest. As shown above was a modern interpretation of the matter showing what bird will be soon extinct.

1 Response to Charles Darwin

  1. swoodward

    Chap 21 The New Imperialism: Motives and Methods
    I found that this New Imperialism in the 19th century was impacted greatly by Lenin who was a Russian communist. Lenin believed that imperialism was inherent in the dynamic of capitalism and that in order to survive, capitalist economics had to find new markets for their surplus products. I thought it was appropriate to add in a little more about the background of this influential Russian.
    “Vladimir Illich Ulyanov (later known as Lenin) was born in Simbirsk, Russia, on 10th April, 1870. His father, Ilya Ulyanov, a local schools inspector, held conservative views and was a devout member of the Russian Orthodox Church. Lenin was deeply influenced by the revolutionary political views of his older brother, Alexander Ulyanov, who introduced him to the ideas of Karl Marx. Lenin was educated at the Simbirsk Gymnasium. His headmaster was F. I. Kerensky, the father of Alexander Kerensky. Although Lenin despised the conservative views of his teachers he still managed to do well in his examinations.
    At the of seventeen Lenin read the utopian novel, What is to be Done? by Nikolai Chernyshevsky. Along with Alexander Ulyanov and Karl Marx, Chernyshevsky was the greatest influence on his early political development.
    In 1887 Lenin’s brother, Alexander Ulyanov, a member of the People’s Will, was executed for his part in the plot to kill Tsar Alexander III. As the brother of a state criminal, attempts were made to stop Lenin from entering university. Eventually he was allowed to study law at Kazan University.
    While at university Lenin became involved in politics. After one protest demonstration he was arrested and taken to the local police station. One of the police officers asked: “Why are you rebelling, young man? After all, there is a wall in front of you.” Lenin confidently replied: “The wall is tottering, you only have to push it for it to fall over.”
    Lenin was now expelled from Kazan University and so he went to St. Petersburg and studied as an external student. After passing his law exams in 1891, Lenin started practising law in Samara.
    Lenin moved to St. Petersburg in 1893. He continued his involvement in politics and in 1895 went to Switzerland to meet George Plekhanov, Pavel Axelrod, Vera Zasulich and Lev Deich and other members of the Liberation of Labour group.
    When Lenin returned to Russia, Lenin and a group of friends, including Jules Martov and Nadezhda Krupskaya, formed the Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class.
    In 1896 Lenin was arrested and sentenced to three years internal exile in Siberia. Nadezhda Krupskaya joined Lenin in Shushenskoye and they married in July, 1898. While living in exile Lenin wrote The Development of Capitalism in Russia, The Tasks of Russian Social Democrats, as well as articles for various socialist journals. Lenin and Krupskaya also translated from English to Russian, The Theory and Practice of Trade Unionism by Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb.” (http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSlenin.htm)

    A political cartoon on the topic of globalization in business is trading with the enemy, China. An example how his theories have effected the thinking in modern society.

    Lenin prophesied that Americans will hang themselves and they, the Communist, will sell us the rope. Greedy American businessmen, bent on globalization in business, are foolishly engaging in buying and selling goods with China and giving them American jobs and technology regardless of how much it strengthens them and weakens us. For example, Boeing is teaching them how to build jetliners and GM is manufacturing Buicks for their elite. Meanwhile, the Chinese speak of ‘The Long March China’ ( war against the U.S.) and are striving to increase their clout in various parts of the world.

    Chap 21: Opium Wars

    What exactly was it?

    The Opium Wars also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, were the climax of trade disputes and diplomatic difficulties between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire after China sought to restrict British opium traffickers. It consisted of the First Opium War from 1839 to 1842and the Second Opium War from 1856 to
    Opium was smuggled by merchants from British India into China in defiance of Chinese prohibition laws. Open warfare between Britain and China broke out in 1839. Further disputes over the treatment of British merchants in Chinese ports resulted in the Second Opium War.
    China was defeated in both wars leaving its government having to tolerate the opium trade. Britain forced the Chinese government into signing the Treaty of Nanking and the Treaty of Tianjin, also known as the Unequal Treaties, which included provisions for the opening of additional ports to unrestricted foreign trade, for fixed tariffs; for the recognition of both countries as equal in correspondence; and for the cession of Hong Kong to Britain. The British also gained extraterritorial rights. Several countries followed Britain and sought similar agreements with China. Many Chinese found these agreements humiliating and these sentiments contributed to the Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864), the Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901), and the downfall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912, putting an end to dynastic China.

    What is opium was it worth a war?

    Opium is the dried latex obtained from opium poppies. Opium contains up to 12% morphine, an opiate alkaloid, which is most frequently processed chemically to produce heroin for the illegal drug trade. The latex also includes codeine and non-narcotic alkaloids, such as papaverine, thebaine and noscapine. The latex is obtained by lacerating the immature seed pods; the latex leaks out and dries to a sticky brown residue. This is scraped off the fruit. Meconium historically referred to related, weaker preparations made from other parts of the poppy or different species of poppies. Modern opium production is the culmination of millennia of production, in which the morphine content of the plants, methods of extraction and processing, and methods of consumption have become increasingly potent.
    Cultivation of opium poppies for food, anesthesia, and ritual purposes dates back to at least the Neolithic Age. The Sumerian, Assyrian, Egyptian, Minoan, Greek, Roman, Persian and Arab Empires each made widespread use of opium, which was the most potent form of pain relief then available, allowing ancient surgeons to perform prolonged surgical procedures. Opium is mentioned in the most important medical texts of the ancient world, including the Ebers Papyrus and the writings of Dioscorides, Galen, and Avicenna. Widespread medical use of unprocessed opium continued through the American Civil War before giving way to morphine and its successors, which could be injected at a precisely controlled dosage.
    In China recreational use of the drug began in the fifteenth century but was limited by its rarity and expense. Opium trade became more regular by the seventeenth century, when it was mixed with tobacco for smoking, and addiction was first recognized Opium prohibition in China began in 1729 yet was followed by nearly two centuries of increasing opium use. China had a positive balance sheet in trading with the British, which led to a decrease of the British silver stocks. Therefore, the British tried to encourage Chinese opium use to enhance their balance, and they delivered it from Indian provinces under British control. A massive confiscation of opium by the Chinese emperor, who tried to stop the opium deliveries, led to two Opium Wars in 1839 and 1858, in which Britain suppressed China and traded opium all over the country. After 1860, opium use continued to increase with widespread domestic production in China, until more than a quarter of the male population was addicted by 1905. Recreational or addictive opium use in other nations remained rare into the late nineteenth century, recorded by an ambivalent literature that sometimes praised the drug.
    Global regulation of opium began with the stigmatization of Chinese immigrants and opium dens in San Francisco, California, leading rapidly from town ordinances in the 1870s to the formation of the International Opium Commission in 1909. During this period, the portrayal of opium in literature became squalid and violent, British opium trade was largely supplanted by domestic Chinese production, purified morphine and heroin became widely available for injection, and patent medicines containing opiates reached a peak of popularity. Opium was prohibited in many countries during the early twentieth century, leading to the modern pattern of opium production as a precursor for illegal recreational drugs or tightly regulated legal prescription drugs. Illicit opium production, now dominated by Afghanistan, was decimated in 2000 when production was banned by the Taliban, but has increased steadily since the fall of the Taliban in 2001 and over the course of the War in Afghanistan. Worldwide production in 2006 was 6610 metric tonnes- nearly one-fifth the level of production in 1906. Opium for illegal use is often converted into heroin, which multiplies its potency to approximately twice that of morphine, can be taken by intravenous injection, and is easier to smuggle

    Chap 21: Treaty of Versailles

    What were some of the flaws?

    1) It limited the German Army to 100,000 men, demilitarized much of western Germany, and forbade the German ownership of military aircraft, poison gas, or any naval units.
    2) Huge war reparations were demanded of the Germans. This led to Germany printing new money, which lead to rapid inflation, which lead to the entire collapse of the German Economy and contributed to the Great Depression.
    3) German Representatives thought that the Treaty was laid out by Wilson. In reality, Wilson’s moderate 14 Points were expanded and turned into the Versailles Treaty. This led Germany to feel as if the U.S. had betrayed them.
    4) The Saarland and Rhineland Occupation was also a cause of great anger for the Germans. That, in combination with the loss of the Sudetenland and Danzig Corridor ultimately led to Hitler’s idea of “Lebensraum” or Living Space
    5) Article 231, the “War Guilt Clause”, put the sole blame for the war on Germany.
    6) The German Representative who signed the Treaty, Fredrick Ebert, was Jewish. Post-WWI, growing anger regarding the Treaty and economic downturn (Most bankers were Jewish) led to a rise in Anti-Semitism.

    Quote on the treaty:

    “The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make.”
    – Woodrow Wilson, April 1917 (Congress)

    Political cartoon on the Treaty of Versailles:

    http://symonsez.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/versailles.jpg
    Chap 21: Leauge Of Nations

    The Leauge of Nations successes and failures:

    The League quickly proved its value by settling the Swedish-Finnish dispute over the Åland Islands (1920—21), guaranteeing the security of Albania (1921), rescuing Austria from economic disaster, settling the division of Upper Silesia (1922), and preventing the outbreak of war in the Balkans between Greece and Bulgaria (1925). In addition, the League extended considerable aid to refugees; it helped to suppress white slave and opium traffic; it did pioneering work in surveys of health; it extended financial aid to needy states; and it furthered international cooperation in labor relations and many other fields.

    The problem of bringing its political influence to bear, especially on the great powers, soon made itself felt. Poland refused to abide by the League decision in the Vilnius dispute, and the League was forced to stand by powerlessly in the face of the French occupation of the Ruhr (1923) and Italy’s occupation of Kérkira (1923). Failure to take action over the Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1931) was a blow to the League’s prestige, especially when followed by Japan’s withdrawal from the League (1933). Another serious failure was the inability of the League to stop the Chaco War (1932—35; see under Gran Chaco) between Bolivia and Paraguay.

    In 1935 the League completed its successful 15-year administration of the Saar territory (see Saarland) by conducting a plebiscite under the supervision of an international military force. But even this success was not sufficient to offset the failure of the Disarmament Conference, Germany’s withdrawal from the League (1933), and Italy’s successful attack on Ethiopia in defiance of the League’s economic sanctions (1935). In 1936, Adolf Hitler remilitarized the Rhineland and denounced the Treaty of Versailles; in 1938 he seized Austria.

    Faced by threats to international peace from all sides–the Spanish civil war, Japan’s resumption of war against China (1937), and finally the appeasement of Hitler at Munich (1938) the League collapsed. German claims on Danzig where the League commissioner had been reduced to impotence, led to the outbreak of World War II. The last important act of the League came in Dec., 1939, when it expelled the USSR for its attack on Finland.

    In 1940 the League secretariat in Geneva was reduced to a skeleton staff; some of the technical services were removed to the United States and Canada. The allied International Labor Organization continued to function and eventually became affiliated with the United Nations. In 1946 the League dissolved itself, and its services and real estate (notably the Palais des Nations in Geneva) were transferred to the United Nations. The League’s chief success lay in providing the first pattern of permanent international organization, a pattern on which much of the United Nations was modeled. Its failures were due as much to the indifference of the great powers, which preferred to reserve important matters for their own decisions, as to weaknesses of organization.
    Cartoon on League of Nations policies:

    http://rutlandhs.k12.vt.us/jpeterso/MOREWW1/PBLCSENT.JPG