Chapter 18-Industrialization

by ayildiri ~ February 11th, 2010. Filed under: Chapter 18: Industry, Society, and Environment.

One of the main sources of income for families came from their land( or working for someone else’s), where wool and linen was produced. When new manufacturing jobs came out, more people were drawn to them, because the salary was better, as well as the hours. When those job demands grew, merchants then started what were called “cottage industries” or the “putting out” system to produce more textiles and increase production. Before all of this was started women and children did most of the spinning and weaving, so when those spinning jobs were needed by merchants, they went to them because of their skill levels. They were paid on something similar to commission by their employer. How ever many clothes they put out that day or week determined how much they were getting paid. Thus resulting in an economy surrounded by money.

Early Industrial Revolution(in Brittain)- 1760-1820

  • Conflicted by American colonies during French Revolution.
  • Technology was constantly changing so new machines were tested frequently. Where as mechanics, and solitary inventors whom lacked education were key.
  • Raw cotton was being produced throughout the 18th century. Females used wooden wheels to spin thread where as males used hand looms. Demand was rising, and output was not.
  • John Kay’s (1704-1764) Flying Shuttle was a great assistance to weavers, but paucity of spun thread created a serious production bottleneck.
  • James Hargreaves(1720-1178) Spinning Jenny was produced in 1778 which fixed that problem. It was a wooden frame that consisted of  a number of spindles around which the thread was drawn by a hand operated wheel.
  • Richard Arkwright(1732-1792) created a water powered spinning machine which was introduced to weavers in 1769.  The stronger rollers produced more durable threads for the cotton cloth. The only problem was that because it required water, and water sources were not near to where they were being used, which created it more expensive to use.

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